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Fluorescein angiography of the ocular fundus in healthy sheep and goats
Fluorescein drops are used to diagnose corneal defects in all species. But there are also other indications on the eye, as this study shows: Intravenously administered fluorescein allows the angiography of the retinal vasculature. Due to the large size of the fundic vessels in sheep and goats, fluorescein angiography can facilitate the study of the different vascular diseases in these species.

Fluorescein angiography without sedative or anesthetic agents was evaluated in 20 normal goats and 20 normal sheep.

All of the angiographic phases were observed using 20 mg/kg fluorescein IV in both species.

Fundus fluorescein angiography results revealed wide stars of Winslow in the tapetal fundus, central or marginal flow during the first part of the arterial phase, delayed filling of the focal areas in the choroid near the optic disc that often coincided with others in the disc, and lack of evidence of the `striate area` in the tapetal fundi.

In goats, the angiographic times were 6.54 ± 1.25 s for the arterial phase (TA), 7.80 ± 1.37 s for the arterio–venous phase (TAV), and 14.13 ± 2.01 s for the venous phase (TV). I1: 1.30 ± 0.30 s (time elapsing between TA and TAV), and I2: 6.20 ± 1.60 s (time elapsing between TAV and TV).

In sheep, times were 9.54 ± 2.18 s TA, 11.73 ± 2.10 s TAV, and 20.86 ± 2.74 s TV. I1: 2.04 ± 0.75 s and I2: 8.98 ± 2.47 s, respectively.


Source: Galán, Alba, Martín-Suárez, Eva M., Granados, M. Mar, Gallardo, José M. & Molleda, José M. (2006): Comparative fluorescein angiography of the normal sheep and goat ocular fundi. In: Veterinary Ophthalmology 9 (1), 7-15.





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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Variability of SDMA in apparently healthy dogsmembers
Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a screening tool for early kidney dysfunction and monitoring treatment in cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are no current studies describing the suitability of this test for use with published population‐based reference intervals. The objectives of this study were to determine the components of biological variability, the index of individuality (IOI), the critical difference between sequential measurements (CD) and the number of measurements required to assess the homeostatic set point (HSP), for both SDMA and serum creatinine (sCr), in apparently healthy dogs.

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