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Acute staphylococcal peritonitis following cystocentesis in a dog (case report)
Cystocentesis is a common diagnostic and therapeutic method. The rate of complications seems low. In this case report, the authors describe a `standard situation` in the veterinary practice (decompressive cyctocentesis), followed by severe complications.

A 6-year-old male Standard Poodle was presented for stranguria and was identified to have a urethral obstruction. Attempts at retrograde urethral catheterization failed and a decompressive cystocentesis was performed.

Within several hours, the dog became dull, tachycardic, tachypneic, pyrexic and profoundly hypovolemic. Septic peritonitis resulting from the introduction of a staphylococcal organism from a urinary tract infection into the peritoneal cavity was identified. The dog responded well to surgical therapy and medical management.

To the authors` knowledge, this is the first detailed report of gram-positive septic peritonitis resulting from a therapeutic cystocentesis. This is contrary to most other reports of septic peritonitis in dogs, where the causative agent is a gram-negative organism. The characteristics of sepsis caused by a gram-positive organism are different and in humans the relative importance of gram-positive sepsis is increasing.

Source: Specht, A. et al. (2002): Acute staphylococcal peritonitis following cystocentesis in a dog. In: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 12 (3), pp 183-187.




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