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Identification of Leptospira causing equine abortion
Leptospiral infections are one of the differential diagnoses in naturally occuring equine abortion. But like in small animals, these organisms can be very difficult to detect. Is the new technique immunohistochemistry (IHC) superior to the `classic` techniques silver staining and serology? A very important question!

The aim of this study was to examine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis of leptospiral equine abortion and to compare IHC to silver staining and serology of the aborted mares.

Ninety-six fetuses from 57 farms were examined using all 3 diagnostic techniques, revealing evidence of leptospiral infection in 3 fetuses (3.1%) from 3 (5.3%) different farms.

A new finding in 1 of these confirmed cases of leptospiral abortion was the presence of macroscopic pinpoint grayish-white nodules that had a histologic correlate of hepatic necrosis; other histologic findings were consistent with those previously reported.

IHC performed using 2 different leptospiral antisera (multivalent whole-cell rabbit antiserum and rabbit antiserum against the major outer membrane protein LipL32) yielded similar results. IHC was more sensitive (19/21 [90.5%] tissue samples) than silver staining (8/21 [38.1%] tissue samples), and more specific than serology performed using the microscopic agglutination test.

The primary advantage of IHC over silver staining was the ability of IHC to identify leptospiral antigen not only as morphologically intact spiral forms.



Source: L. Szeredi and D. A. Haake (2006): Immunohistochemical Identification and Pathologic Findings in Natural Cases of Equine Abortion Caused by Leptospiral Infection. In: Vet Pathol 43:755-761 (2006)



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EQUINE

Theiler´s disease in a Trakehner caused by contaminated tetanus vaccinemembers
An 11‐year‐old Trakehner gelding was presented for evaluation of lethargy, decreased appetite, mild icterus, and elevated hepatic enzyme activities. Physical examination, serum chemistry results, and liver biopsy histopathologic findings were supportive of Theiler`s disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing results of serum and liver tissue were positive for nonprimate (equine) hepacivirus (NPHV) and a novel equine parvovirus‐hepatitis virus (EqPV‐H). A serious and finally fatal problem, caused by contaminated vaccine.

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