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Identification of Leptospira causing equine abortion
Leptospiral infections are one of the differential diagnoses in naturally occuring equine abortion. But like in small animals, these organisms can be very difficult to detect. Is the new technique immunohistochemistry (IHC) superior to the `classic` techniques silver staining and serology? A very important question!

The aim of this study was to examine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis of leptospiral equine abortion and to compare IHC to silver staining and serology of the aborted mares.

Ninety-six fetuses from 57 farms were examined using all 3 diagnostic techniques, revealing evidence of leptospiral infection in 3 fetuses (3.1%) from 3 (5.3%) different farms.

A new finding in 1 of these confirmed cases of leptospiral abortion was the presence of macroscopic pinpoint grayish-white nodules that had a histologic correlate of hepatic necrosis; other histologic findings were consistent with those previously reported.

IHC performed using 2 different leptospiral antisera (multivalent whole-cell rabbit antiserum and rabbit antiserum against the major outer membrane protein LipL32) yielded similar results. IHC was more sensitive (19/21 [90.5%] tissue samples) than silver staining (8/21 [38.1%] tissue samples), and more specific than serology performed using the microscopic agglutination test.

The primary advantage of IHC over silver staining was the ability of IHC to identify leptospiral antigen not only as morphologically intact spiral forms.



Source: L. Szeredi and D. A. Haake (2006): Immunohistochemical Identification and Pathologic Findings in Natural Cases of Equine Abortion Caused by Leptospiral Infection. In: Vet Pathol 43:755-761 (2006)



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EQUINE

CT diagnosis of fatigue fracture of Mt 3 in young adult horsesmembers
Two young adult endurance horses were presented for investigation of sudden-onset forelimb lameness during competition. Clinical examination revealed a severe forelimb lameness and pain on palpation of the proximal palmar metacarpal area. Initial radiographic survey of the affected forelimb was unremarkable in both cases. A week of box rest resulted in only a mild improvement in the lameness. A second radiographic examination did not reveal any significant abnormalities. The history is very suspicious for a fracture, especially a fatigue fracture. How was it diagnosed and treated finally?

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