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Tetanus in dogs - the best therapy
Dogs are less susceptible for tetanus than other species but the disease still remains serious and life-threatening. This recently published article gives an excellent summary of pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, and an update on new treatment modalities.

The objective of this study was to review the pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, and current treatment modalities used in treating tetanus in small animals and humans.

Etiology: Tetanus is caused by the activity of a toxin released from the bacterial organism, Clostridium tetani. The disease has an incubation period of 3 days to 3 weeks and usually follows a deep penetrating wound.

Diagnosis: The diagnosis of tetanus is usually based on history and clinical signs.

Therapy: Therapy of tetanus consists of direct and supportive care and includes toxin neutralization via human or equine derived immunoglobulin, antimicrobial therapy to eliminate C. tetani, and central and peripheral muscle relaxants to control hypertonicity. Adjunctive care may include positive pressure ventilation, anticonvulsant medication, drugs to treat autonomic dysfunction, and nutritional support.

Prognosis: Prognosis varies based on severity of clinical signs at the time of diagnosis and the availability of appropriate care.


Source: Linnenbrink, Thomas & McMichael, Maureen (2006): Tetanus: pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, and update on new treatment modalities.
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 16 (3), 199-207.




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Patient-specific facemask to facilitate brain biopsymembers
The objective of this pilot study was to describe the application and first preliminary data of a novel MRI and CT compatible patient-specific facemask for stereotactic brain biopsy of intracranial lesions in dogs. Five client-owned dogs presenting for neurological deficits consistent with forebrain disease were included in the study. All dogs had MRI findings consistent with an intracranial lesion. But biopsies in this region are not easy to obtain. Does an individual face mask help?

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