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Tetanus in dogs - the best therapy
Dogs are less susceptible for tetanus than other species but the disease still remains serious and life-threatening. This recently published article gives an excellent summary of pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, and an update on new treatment modalities.

The objective of this study was to review the pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, and current treatment modalities used in treating tetanus in small animals and humans.

Etiology: Tetanus is caused by the activity of a toxin released from the bacterial organism, Clostridium tetani. The disease has an incubation period of 3 days to 3 weeks and usually follows a deep penetrating wound.

Diagnosis: The diagnosis of tetanus is usually based on history and clinical signs.

Therapy: Therapy of tetanus consists of direct and supportive care and includes toxin neutralization via human or equine derived immunoglobulin, antimicrobial therapy to eliminate C. tetani, and central and peripheral muscle relaxants to control hypertonicity. Adjunctive care may include positive pressure ventilation, anticonvulsant medication, drugs to treat autonomic dysfunction, and nutritional support.

Prognosis: Prognosis varies based on severity of clinical signs at the time of diagnosis and the availability of appropriate care.


Source: Linnenbrink, Thomas & McMichael, Maureen (2006): Tetanus: pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, and update on new treatment modalities.
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 16 (3), 199-207.




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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