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Cardiac performance after portal hypertension and gastric ischemia
The experimental changes in this study resemble the situation in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus syndrome (GDV) which tend to develop severe and sometimes fatal arrhythmias even days after surgery. After reading this study these complications are much easier to understand...

Seven purpose-bred, intact male dogs were included in this experimental study..

Standard midline laparotomy and median sternotomy were performed under general anesthesia.

Dogs were instrumented to obtain arterial blood pressure, aortic flow, cardiac chamber pressures, central venous pressure, portal flow, and portal pressure.

Colored microsphere technology was used for the determination of myocardial blood flow. Measurements and samples were obtained at baseline, following induction of portal hypertension, and after induction of portal hypertension and gastric ischemia.

Left ventricular myocardial blood flow was increased from 81.8±20.1 mL/100 g/min at baseline to 127.7±57.2 mL/100 g/min (P=0.02) after induction of portal hypertension and gastric ischemia.

Myocardial oxygen consumption increased from 142.2±27.4 J/min/100 g at baseline to 219.1±33.4 J/min/100 g (P=0.003) after induction of portal hypertension and gastric ischemia, but cardiac external work remained unchanged (13.67±6.2 to 13.27±9.6 J/min; P=0.78; power=0.79).

Cardiac efficiency decreased from 11.6±6.1% at baseline to 7.6±5.1% (P=0.017) after induction of portal hypertension and gastric ischemia.

Conclusions: Transfer of energy within the myocardium was less efficient after induction of portal hypertension and ischemia of the stomach wall. On the basis of these results, alterations in cardiac function associated with GDV may result from deterioration of cardiac efficiency.


Source: MacPhail, Catriona M., Monnet, Eric, Pelsue, Davyd H. & Gaynor, James S. (2006): Evaluation of cardiac performance of the dog after induction of portal hypertension and gastric ischemia. in: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 16 (3), 192-198.




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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