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Role of Actinobacillus spp. in bacteremia of foals
Less is published about Actinobacillus spp. in bacteremic foals. But as this large study on more than 100 bacteremic foals shows, this is the causative organism leading to the poorest prognosis for the patient. So it should be identified as early as possible to facilitate the correct treatment decision!

Medical records of 101 blood culture-confirmed bacteremic foals were reviewed to determine whether foals with Actinobacillus sp. bacteremia are affected at an earlier age, have more severe signs of disease, and have a worse prognosis than do foals with bacteremia of other causes.

Thirty percent (30/101) of bacteremic foals had Actinobacillus sp. cultured, and these were 2 times more likely to die (crude odds ratio [OR(CR)] 0.8, 4; P = .14), with a survival rate of 43% (13/30) compared to the overall survival rate of 55% (56/101).

When compared to other bacteremic foals, foals with actinobacillosis were 7 times more likely to have been sick from birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR(ADJ)] 2, 26; P = .003) and 6 times more likely to have diarrhea (OR(ADJ) 1, 22; P = .009).

By bivariate analysis. foals with Actinobacillus sp. bacteremia were 5 times more likely to have a sepsis score >11 (OR(CR) 1, 18; P = .007), 6 times more likely to be obtunded (OR(CR) 2, 20; P = .005), and 3 times more likely to have pneumonia (OR(CR) 1, 7; P = .03).

Furthermore, Actinobacillus sp. bacteremic foals were 27 times more likely to have a segmented neutrophil count <3.3 X 10(9) cells/L (OR(ADJ) 4, 166: P < .0001) and were 4.5 times more likely to have a band neutrophil count >0.46 x 10(9) cells/L (OR(ADJ) 1, 17; P = .02) when compared to foals that had bacteremia caused by either gram-negative enteric or gram-positive organisms.

Sepsis score was < or = 11 in 49% (29/59) of bacteremia foals aged <13 days for which a discernible sepsis score was calculable.

Results of this study should improve the diagnostic sensitivity of clinical examinations of neonatal foals, thereby facilitating treatment decisions.



Source: Stewart AJ, Hinchcliff KW, Saville WJ, Jose-Cunilleras E, Hardy J, Kohn CW, Reed SM, Kowalski JJ. (2002): Actinobacillus sp. bacteremia in foals: clinical signs and prognosis. In: J Vet Intern Med. 2002 Jul-Aug;16(4):464-71.




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EQUINE

CT description of equine oromaxillary sinus and oronasal fistulaemembers
Oronasal and oromaxillary sinus fistulae are well‐documented complications following removal or loss of a maxillary cheek tooth. Diagnosis is currently based on a combination of oral examination, videoendoscopy, radiography, and computed tomography (CT). The objective of this retrospective, case series study was to describe the CT characteristics of confirmed oronasal and oromaxillary sinus fistulae in a group of horses.

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