|Medical records of 101 blood culture-confirmed bacteremic foals were reviewed to determine whether foals with Actinobacillus sp. bacteremia are affected at an earlier age, have more severe signs of disease, and have a worse prognosis than do foals with bacteremia of other causes.
Thirty percent (30/101) of bacteremic foals had Actinobacillus sp. cultured, and these were 2 times more likely to die (crude odds ratio [OR(CR)] 0.8, 4; P = .14), with a survival rate of 43% (13/30) compared to the overall survival rate of 55% (56/101).
When compared to other bacteremic foals, foals with actinobacillosis were 7 times more likely to have been sick from birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR(ADJ)] 2, 26; P = .003) and 6 times more likely to have diarrhea (OR(ADJ) 1, 22; P = .009).
By bivariate analysis. foals with Actinobacillus sp. bacteremia were 5 times more likely to have a sepsis score >11 (OR(CR) 1, 18; P = .007), 6 times more likely to be obtunded (OR(CR) 2, 20; P = .005), and 3 times more likely to have pneumonia (OR(CR) 1, 7; P = .03).
Furthermore, Actinobacillus sp. bacteremic foals were 27 times more likely to have a segmented neutrophil count <3.3 X 10(9) cells/L (OR(ADJ) 4, 166: P < .0001) and were 4.5 times more likely to have a band neutrophil count >0.46 x 10(9) cells/L (OR(ADJ) 1, 17; P = .02) when compared to foals that had bacteremia caused by either gram-negative enteric or gram-positive organisms.
Sepsis score was < or = 11 in 49% (29/59) of bacteremia foals aged <13 days for which a discernible sepsis score was calculable.
Results of this study should improve the diagnostic sensitivity of clinical examinations of neonatal foals, thereby facilitating treatment decisions.
Source: Stewart AJ, Hinchcliff KW, Saville WJ, Jose-Cunilleras E, Hardy J, Kohn CW, Reed SM, Kowalski JJ. (2002): Actinobacillus sp. bacteremia in foals: clinical signs and prognosis. In: J Vet Intern Med. 2002 Jul-Aug;16(4):464-71.
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