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Histiocytic macrophagic sarcoma in a cat
An old cat was diagnosed to be slightly anemic in a routine examination and a mild nonregenerative anemia was diagnosed. One of the most likely reasons for this of course is a renal insufficiency. But the bone marrow biopsy revealed not the exspected result but a erythryoid hyperplasia. A fascinating case report of a very unusual neoplasia!

Mild nonregenerative anemia was detected in a 9-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat during a routine examination.

Bone marrow core biopsy revealed erythroid hyperplasia; however, a specific cause was not identified.

Over the next 8 months the anemia progressed, eventually becoming mildly regenerative, and moderate thrombocytopenia developed.

On ultrasonographic examination, marked splenomegaly, mild hepatomegaly, and abdominal lymphadenopathy were found.

Cytologic evaluation of splenic aspirates revealed increased numbers of mildly to moderately pleomorphic histiocytes that frequently had phagocytosed RBCs, leukocytes, and occasionally platelets. Histopathologic examination of the spleen and liver revealed effacement of splenic architecture by a histiocytic sarcoma (HS), and neoplastic histiocytes in hepatic sinusoids.

A second bone marrow aspirate revealed neoplastic infiltration by similar cells.

The histiocytes in all tissues were mildly to moderately pleomorphic and markedly erythrophagocytic.

The immunophenotype of histiocytes in the spleen was CD1c−/CD11b+/CD18+/MHC-II+, supporting a macrophage cell lineage.

The clinical, pathologic, and immunophenotypic findings in this cat were similar to those in hemophagocytic HSs in dogs.

To our knowledge, this is the first report of a HS of purported macrophage phenotype in a cat.



Source: Kristen R. Friedrichs, Karen M. Young (2008): Histiocytic sarcoma of macrophage origin in a cat: case report with a literature review of feline histiocytic malignancies and comparison with canine hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma. In: Veterinary Clinical Pathology 37 (1) , 121–128



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