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New vaccines against West Nile virus infection
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is endemic and able to cause disease in naive hosts. Also humans can be infected - for them remaining indoor during the flight time of mosquitoes and/or use of repellents is recommended. Horses can be vaccinated. Some vaccines are availabel. What about the safety of new vaccines?

This study was performed to establish: 1) the safety of a modified live Flavivirus/West Nile virus (WN-FV) chimera by administration of an overdose and testing for shed of vaccine virus and spread to uninoculated sentinel horses; 2) that this vaccine did not become pathogenic once passaged in horses; and 3) vaccine safety under field conditions.

There were 3 protocols: 1) In the overdose/shed and spread study, horses were vaccinated with a 100x immunogenicity overdose of WN-FV chimera vaccine and housed with sentinel horses. 2) A reversion to virulence study, where horses were vaccinated with a 20x immunogenicity overdose of WN-FV chimera vaccine. Horses in both studies were evaluated for abnormal health conditions and samples obtained to detect virus, seroconversion and dissemination into tissues. 3) In a field safety test 919 healthy horses of various ages, breeds and sex were used.

RESULTS: Vaccination did not result in site or systemic reactions in either experimental or field-injected horses.
There was no shed of vaccine virus, no detection of vaccine virus into tissue and no reversion to virulence with passage.

CONCLUSIONS: WN-FV chimera vaccine is safe to use in horses with no evidence of ill effects from very high doses of vaccine.
There was no evidence of reversion to virulence. In addition, administration of this vaccine to several hundred horses that may have been previously exposed to WNV or WNV vaccine resulted in no untoward reactions.
These studies establish that this live attenuated Flavivirus chimera is safe to use for immunoprophylaxis against WNV disease in horses.




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EQUINE

Theiler´s disease in a Trakehner caused by contaminated tetanus vaccinemembers
An 11‐year‐old Trakehner gelding was presented for evaluation of lethargy, decreased appetite, mild icterus, and elevated hepatic enzyme activities. Physical examination, serum chemistry results, and liver biopsy histopathologic findings were supportive of Theiler`s disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing results of serum and liver tissue were positive for nonprimate (equine) hepacivirus (NPHV) and a novel equine parvovirus‐hepatitis virus (EqPV‐H). A serious and finally fatal problem, caused by contaminated vaccine.

  • Limbal squamous cell carcinoma in a Rocky Mountain Horse and geneticsmembers
  • Subconjunctival bupivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine and the corneal sensitivity in horsesmembers
  • Clodronate in horses with lamenessmembers
  • Valacyclovir in horses with equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosismembers
  • Radiculopathy associated with forelimb lameness in horsesmembers
  • Biological variations of routine blood parameters in horsesmembers
  • Prognosis for horses with deep digital flexor tendon injury after penetrating woundmembers
  • Possible maternal effect for the pace trait of horsesmembers
  • Flecainide on induced atrial fibrillation in horsesmembers
  • Sonographic technique to identify manica flexoria tears in horsesmembers
  • Novel prototype dynamic laryngoplasty system on arytenoid abductionmembers
  • Lipid peroxidation biomarkers in equine neuroaxonal dystrophymembers


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