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New vaccines against West Nile virus infection
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is endemic and able to cause disease in naive hosts. Also humans can be infected - for them remaining indoor during the flight time of mosquitoes and/or use of repellents is recommended. Horses can be vaccinated. Some vaccines are availabel. What about the safety of new vaccines?

This study was performed to establish: 1) the safety of a modified live Flavivirus/West Nile virus (WN-FV) chimera by administration of an overdose and testing for shed of vaccine virus and spread to uninoculated sentinel horses; 2) that this vaccine did not become pathogenic once passaged in horses; and 3) vaccine safety under field conditions.

There were 3 protocols: 1) In the overdose/shed and spread study, horses were vaccinated with a 100x immunogenicity overdose of WN-FV chimera vaccine and housed with sentinel horses. 2) A reversion to virulence study, where horses were vaccinated with a 20x immunogenicity overdose of WN-FV chimera vaccine. Horses in both studies were evaluated for abnormal health conditions and samples obtained to detect virus, seroconversion and dissemination into tissues. 3) In a field safety test 919 healthy horses of various ages, breeds and sex were used.

RESULTS: Vaccination did not result in site or systemic reactions in either experimental or field-injected horses.
There was no shed of vaccine virus, no detection of vaccine virus into tissue and no reversion to virulence with passage.

CONCLUSIONS: WN-FV chimera vaccine is safe to use in horses with no evidence of ill effects from very high doses of vaccine.
There was no evidence of reversion to virulence. In addition, administration of this vaccine to several hundred horses that may have been previously exposed to WNV or WNV vaccine resulted in no untoward reactions.
These studies establish that this live attenuated Flavivirus chimera is safe to use for immunoprophylaxis against WNV disease in horses.




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EQUINE

Novel surgical treatment of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in horses members
In horses, the only established method for reinnervation of the larynx is the nerve‐muscle pedicle implantation, whereas in human medicine, direct nerve implantation is a standard surgical technique for selective laryngeal reinnervation in human patients suffering from bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Thus, the objectives of this case series were
(1) To describe a modified first or second cervical nerve transplantation technique for the treatment of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) in horses and (2) evaluate the outcomes of reinnervation using direct nerve needle‐stimulation of the first cervical nerve and exercising endoscopy before and after surgery.

  • Standing repair of a fracture of the third metatarsal bone of a Hunt Thoroughbred mare members
  • Unusual cause of bilateral blindness in a young Quarter Horsemembers
  • Advanced imaging of an incomplete fracture of Os metacarpale III in a young Warmbloodmembers
  • Equine external beam radiation therapymembers
  • Insulin dysregulation in horses with SIRSmembers
  • The farrier role in supporting horse owners to prevent laminitismembers
  • CT description of equine oromaxillary sinus and oronasal fistulaemembers
  • Insulin and the structural integrity of equine digital lamellaemembers
  • Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in Thoroughbred racehorsesmembers
  • Specific bioactive collagen peptides (PETAGILE®) in horses with osteoarthritismembers
  • Epidural anaesthesia in horses with perineal and tail melanomasmembers
  • Unexpected cause of haematuria in an Egyptian Arabian stallionmembers


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