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Cardiovascular effects of desflurane in dogs with acute hemorrhage
Desflurane is commonly used in dogs with acute hemorrhage that require surgery. Less is known about its cardiovascular effects especially in these animals. A group from Brazil performed an experimental study on 8 mixed breed dogs.

Hemorrhage was induced by withdrawal of blood until mean arterial pressure (MAP) dropped to 60 mmHg in conscious dogs. Blood pressure was maintained at 60 mmHg for 1 hour by further removal or replacement of blood. Desflurane was delivered by facemask until endotracheal intubation could be performed and a desflurane expiratory end-tidal concentration of 10.5 V% was maintained.

Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2), and arterial pH were recorded before and 60 minutes after hemorrhage, and 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after intubation.
Sixty minutes after hemorrhage, SAP, DAP, MAP, CVP, CO, CI, SV, PaCO2, and arterial pH decreased, and HR and RR increased when compared with baselines values.
Immediately after intubation, MAP and arterial pH decreased, and PaCO2 increased.
Fifteen minutes after intubation SAP, DAP, MAP, arterial pH, and SVR decreased.
At 30 and 45 minutes, MAP and DAP remained decreased and PaCO2 increased, compared with values measured after hemorrhage.
Arterial pH increased after 30 minutes of desflurane administration compared with values measured 5 minutes after intubation.

Recording to these results, desflurane induced significant changes in blood pressure and arterial pH when administered to dogs following acute hemorrhage.

Source: Santos, Paulo S.P., Andrade, James N.B.M., Selmi, André L., Costa, Jorge L.O., Faleiros, Rafael R. & Nunes, Newton (2003):
Cardiovascular effects of desflurane following acute hemorrhage in dogs. In: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 13 (1), 7-12.



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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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