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Efficacy of topical insecticides against sand flies
Leishmaniasis, transmitted by sand flies, is a well-known problem especially in travelling pets. Many dog owners ask for an effective preventive insecticide to protect their pets. What can be recommended? A study from UK and Brazil compared four topical insecticides.

The susceptibility of sand fly vectors to four topical insecticide treatments applied to domestic dogs, a reservoir of human leishmaniasis, was evaluated.
Dogs were exposed to sand flies pretreatment and at 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months posttreatment.

Sand fly bloodfeeding and survival rate of both fed and unfed flies were significantly reduced by the permethrin, deltamethrin, and fenthion treatments, but diazinon had no effect. The survival rate of bloodfed sand flies was reduced by up to 86% with deltamethrin collars.

The antifeeding effect suggests that deltamethrin collars may be recommended to dog owners to protect their pets from sandfly-borne diseases.

The combined effects on sand fly feeding and survival indicate that epidemiologic, community-based trials are warranted to test whether deltamethrin collars could reduce the incidence of canine and, hence, human leishmaniasis.

Source: R Reithinger, U Teodoro, C R. Davies
(2001): Topical Insecticide Treatments to Protect Dogs from Sand Fly Vectors of Leishmaniasis. In:
Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal Vol. 7, No. 5 Sep–Oct 2001




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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