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Irritant threshold concentrations of various outdoor allergens in the intradermal test
The intradermal test (IDT) remains the gold standard in the identification of allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis. But the concentration of the allergens used in the test can be a problem, and too concentrated allergens cause false-positive reactions. this new study determines the Irritant threshold concentration (ITC) for intradermal testing (IDT) in 31 healthy, clinically nonallergic dogs, using 23 commonly used seasonal allergens at five variable concentrations ranging from 1000 to 8000 PNU/mL.

To distinguish irritant reactions from subclinical IgE-mediated hypersensitivities, serum allergy testing was performed.

ITCs were determined by evaluating the lowest concentration to which no dogs (0% cut-off) and to which at least 10% of dogs (¡Ý10% cut-off) reacted.

ITCs at the 0% cut-off were: 1000 PNU/mL (Johnson grass), 2000 PNU/mL (Ash, Lamb`s Quarter and Bermuda), 3000 PNU/mL (Bahia, Rye, Pig Weed and Virginia Oak), 4000 PNU/mL (Marsh Elder and Maple), 5000 PNU/mL (Sorrel sheep) and 7000 PNU/mL (Cocklebur and Black Willow).

ITC for Dog Fennel, Box Elder and Red Cedar was <1000 PNU/mL. ITCs at the ¡Ý10% cut-off were: 2500 PNU/mL (Johnson), 3000 PNU/mL (Box Elder), 5000 PNU/mL (Bahia), 6000 PNU/mL (Pigweed and Marsh Elder) and 8000 PNU/mL (Virginia Oak and Black Willow).

For all other allergens, the ITC was >8000 PNU/mL and could not be determined.

No significant agreement between positive values was found for the same allergen on IDT and serum allergy testing for each dog suggesting reactions caused by the determined ITCs are less likely subclinical IgE-mediated reactions.

These results suggest that ITCs may vary, also they may be very high for the allergens tested and that higher test concentrations may be used for IDT for the tested allergens without inducing an irritant reaction.

Further studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of higher IDT concentrations in atopic dogs.


Source: Cynthia L. Bauer, Patrick Hensel, Michaela Austel, Deborah Keys (2010): Determination of irritant threshold concentrations to weeds, trees and grasses through serial dilutions in intradermal testing on healthy clinically nonallergic dogs. In: Veterinary Dermatology, Volume 21 Issue 2, Pages 192 - 197, Published Online: 4 Mar 2010




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