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Acepromazine before opioids lowers incidence of vomiting
Opioid-induced vomiting is a well-known phenomenon. In a randomized prospective clinical study, a group from Florida evaluated the anti-emetic properties of acepromazine in dogs receiving opioids as pre-anesthetic medication.

Effects of acepromazine on the incidence of vomiting associated with opioid administration in dogs
Alexander Valverde DVM, DVSc, Diplomate ACVA, Shauna Cantwell DVM, MVSc, Diplomate ACVA, Jorge Hernández MVZ, MPVM, PhD & Celeste Brotherson DVM

Abstract

One hundred and sixteen dogs (ASA I or II), admitted for elective surgical procedures were included. The dogs were a mixed population of males and females, purebreds and mixed breeds, 0.25-13.4 years of age, weighing 1.8-57.7 kg.

In this prospective clinical trial the dogs were randomly assigned to one of three groups. All groups received acepromazine (0.05 mg kg1 intramuscularly (IM)). Group I received acepromazine 15 minutes prior to opioid administration. Group II received acepromazine in combination with the opioid. Group III received acepromazine 15 minutes after opioid administration. One of three different opioids was administered IM to each dog: morphine sulfate at 0.5 mg kg1; hydromorphone hydrochloride at 0.1 mg kg1; or oxymorphone hydrochloride at 0.075 mg kg1.

Dogs receiving acepromazine before the opioid (group I) had a significantly lower incidence of vomiting (18%) than dogs in groups II (45%) and III (55%).

The degree of sedation was significantly lower in the dogs receiving the combination of acepromazine and the opioid (group II) than in dogs receiving the opioid as the first drug (group III).

Acepromazine administered 15 minutes before the opioid lowers the incidence of vomiting induced by opioids.

Source: Valverde, Alexander, Cantwell, Shauna, Hernández, Jorge & Brotherson, Celeste (2004): Effects of acepromazine on the incidence of vomiting associated with opioid administration in dogs. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 31 (1), 40-45.



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