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Association between dietary factors and urolithiasis in cats
Urolithiasis is a commonly seen problem in feline practice, often leading to surgical intervention followed by dietary changes. In this study, the association between dietary factors and the most common uroliths in cats is evaluated - with surprising new insights that may help to reduce the risk of developing urolithiasis in the feline patients.

This study should identify dietary factors associated with the increase in occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths and the decrease in occurrence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) uroliths in cats.
It was designed as a case-control study. 173 cats with CaOx uroliths, 290 cats with MAP uroliths, and 827 cats without any urinary tract diseases were included. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Cats fed diets low in sodium or potassium or formulated to maximize urine acidity had an increased risk of developing CaOx uroliths but a decreased risk of developing MAP uroliths. Additionally, compared with the lowest contents, diets with the highest moisture or protein contents and with moderate magnesium, phosphorus, or calcium contents were associated with decreased risk of CaOx urolith formation.

In contrast, diets with moderate fat or carbohydrate contents were associated with increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Diets with the highest magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, or fiber contents and moderate protein content were associated with increased risk of MAP urolith formation.
On the other hand, diets with the highest fat content were associated with decreased risk of MAP urolith formation.

Results suggest that diets formulated to contain higher protein, sodium, potassium, moisture, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium contents and with decreased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of CaOx uroliths in cats.

Diets formulated to contain higher fat content and lower protein and potassium contents and with increased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of MAP uroliths.

Source: Lekcharoensuk C,Osborne CA,Lulich JP,Pusoonthornthum R,Kirk CA,Ulrich LK,Koehler LA,Carpenter KA,Swanson LL. (2001): Association between dietary factors and calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis in cats. In: J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001 Nov 1;219(9):1228-37





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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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