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New developments in prostaglandin-based oestrous synchronization programmes in cows
Oestrous synchronization has a long history in breeding protocols in cows. This recently published study from Spain compares and comments several effective protocols.

A double prostaglandin protocol applied 11-14 days apart seems to be capable of bringing most cows to oestrus. Because of varying oestrus onset times, improved conception rates are obtained following artificial insemination (AI) at detected oestrus rather than fixed-time AI in prostaglandin-treated cows.
The administration of oestradiol or human chorionic gonadotrophin, or both these hormones, after prostaglandin treatment, improves the synchrony of oestrus yet does not enhance the conception rate.
Progesterone-based treatments for oestrous synchronization are considered the most appropriate for non-cyclic or anoestrous postpartum dairy cows; prostaglandin alone being ineffective because of the absence of a mature corpus luteum in these cows.

Improved oestrus synchrony and fertility rate have been reported using short-term progesterone treatment regimes (7-9 days) with or without oestradiol benzoate combined with the use of a luteolytic agent given 1 day before, or at the time of, progesterone withdrawal.

The ovulation synchronization (Ovsynch) protocol, based on the use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and prostaglandin, was developed to coordinate follicular recruitment, CL regression and the time of ovulation. This protocol allows fixed time insemination and has proved effective in improving reproductive management in postpartum dairy cows.

However, timed AI following Ovsynch seems to have no beneficial effects in heifers, because of an inconsistent follicle wave pattern, and in anoestrous cows, given their lack of prostaglandin responsive CL.
To date, there are several prostaglandin based, fixed-time insemination oestrous synchronization protocols for use in early postpartum dairy cows with ovarian disorders such as ovarian cysts and acyclicity.


Source: Yániz, JL, Murugavel, K & López-Gatius, F (2004): Recent Developments in Oestrous Synchronization of Postpartum Dairy Cows with and without Ovarian Disorders. In: Reproduction in Domestic Animals 39 (2), 86-93.




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BOVINE

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