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Adaptation of the femur to cemented total hip arthroplasty in dogs
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Image: ® Bayer Animal Health

Cemented total hip arthroplasty is often performed in dogs. But what reaction shows the femur to the new anatomic conditions? This clinical study, performed on fourteen dogs, gives very interesting answers to this question.

Specimens were collected from client-owned dogs that were donated after death because of causes unrelated to their cemented total hip arthroplasty (cTHA).
Mean (±SEM) dog age was 11.4±0.7 years and implant duration was 5.3±0.7 years. Implant stability was established from radiographic signs and gross mechanical stability.

Femurs were evaluated at 3 levels based on implant length: proximal stem (PS), mid-stem (MS), and distal to stem (DS). Cortical area, medullary area, and porosity were measured at each level. Implanted femurs were compared to contralateral nonimplanted femurs.

Cortical area and cortical porosity were significantly increased in implanted femurs compared to nonimplanted femurs. Cortical area was increased at the MS and DS levels, and porosity was increased at the PS and MS levels in implanted femurs. Porosity was greatest in the endosteal region at the PS and MS levels in implanted femurs.

Significant differences in femoral geometry and cortical porosity were detected after long-term stable cTHA. Net bone loss proximally and increased bone mass distally support stress shielding as a important mechanical factor associated with bone adaptation. Distribution of porosity shifts to endosteal regions after long-term cTHA.

These results suggest that significant site-specific femoral adaptation occurs in response to stable cTHA and may precede implant loosening.

Source: Bergh, Mary Sarah, Muir, Peter, Markel, Mark D. & Manley, Paul A. (2004): Femoral Bone Adaptation to Stable Long-Term Cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty in Dogs. In: Veterinary Surgery 33 (3), 214-220.




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