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Serum insulin concentration in dogs with diabetic ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the common complications of canine diabetes mellitus requiring immediate intervention. A group from Pennsylvania compared the endogenous serum insulin concentration between dogs with uncomplicated diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis and ketonuria. With very interesting results!

This prospective study was performed to determine endogenous serum insulin concentration in dogs with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and to compare it to endogenous serum insulin concentration in diabetic dogs with ketonuria but no acidosis (KDM), diabetic dogs with uncomplicated diabetes mellitus (DM) that did not have ketonuria or acidosis, and dogs with non-pancreatic disease (NP).

Forty-four client-owned dogs were included: 20 dogs with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (7 dogs with DKA, 6 dogs with KDM, and 7 dogs with DM) and 24 dogs with non-pancreatic disease. Blood and urine samples were obtained at the time of admission to the hospital.

Signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, and concurrent disease were recorded for all dogs. Blood glucose concentration, venous blood pH, venous blood HCO3 concentration, urinalysis, and endogenous serum insulin concentration were determined in all dogs.

Dogs with DKA have significantly decreased endogenous serum insulin concentrations compared to dogs with DM (P = 0.03) and dogs with non-pancreatic disease (P = 0.0002), but not compared to dogs with KDM (P = 0.2). Five of 7 dogs with DKA had detectable endogenous serum insulin concentrations, and 2 of these dogs had endogenous serum insulin concentration within the normal range.

According to these results, diabetic dogs with ketoacidosis have significantly decreased endogenous serum insulin concentration compared to dogs with uncomplicated diabetes mellitus. However, most dogs with DKA have detectable endogenous serum insulin concentrations, and some dogs with DKA have endogenous serum insulin concentrations within the normal range.


Source: Parsons, Shannon E., Drobatz, Kenneth J., Lamb, Stephen V., Ward, Cynthia R. & Hess, Rebecka S. (2002): Endogenous serum insulin concentration in dogs with diabetic ketoacidosis.
In: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 12 (3), 147-152.




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