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TNF-factor alpha and IL-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs after seizures
Idiopathic and acquired epilepsy are common in dogs. Up to 30% of these dogs are refractory to pharmacological treatment. Accumulating experimental evidence indicates that brain immune response and presence of inflammatory mediators decrease the threshold for individual seizures and contribute to epileptogenesis. Do dogs with seizures have higher cerebrospinal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations compared to dogs with no seizures?

A prospective double blinded study was performed: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum IL-6, TNF-α and total protein (TP) concentrations were measured by a blinded investigator for the study group and CSF IL-6 and TNF-α levels and TP concentrations were measured in the control group (CG).

Dogs presented with seizures that had enough CSF collected to allow analysis were included in the study group.

Twelve apparently healthy, quarantined, stray dogs served as control (CG).

Cerebrospinal fluid TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher (P = .011, P = .039) in dogs with seizures (0 ± 70.66, 0.65 ± 10.93 pg/mL) compared to the CG (0 ± 19, 0.73 ± 0.55 pg/mL).

When assessing cytokine concentrations of specifically the idiopathic epilepsy (IE) dogs compared to the CG, only TNF-α concentrations (8.66 ± 62, 0 ± 19 pg/mL) were significantly higher (P = .01). CSF TP concentrations were not significantly higher in the study dogs compared to the CG.

Higher TNF-α and IL-6 concentration in the CSF of dogs with naturally occurring seizures.

The higher supports the hypothesis that inflammatory processes through certain mediators play a role in the pathogenesis of seizures in dogs.


Source: Merbl, Y., Sommer, A., Chai, O., Aroch, I., Zimmerman, G., Friedman, A., Soreq, H. and Shamir, M.H. (2014), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-6 Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Dogs After Seizures. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 28: 1775–1781. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12462


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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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