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Piroxicam in transitional cell carcinoma of the canine bladder
Transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder sometimes occur especially in older dogs. Often they are nonresecatable. Is piroxicam, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, a therapy that can be recommended?

Thirty-four dogs with histopathologically confirmed, measurable, nonresectable transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder were treated with piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg PO sid) and were evaluated for tumor response and drug toxicity.

Dogs were evaluated at the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital by means of physical examination, thoracic and abdominal radiography, cystography, complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile, and urinalysis.
In selected cases, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in plasma and in supernatants of stimulated monocytes, and natural killer cell activity were quantified.

Dogs were evaluated before therapy and at 28 and 56 days after initiation of therapy. Dogs with stable disease or remission at 56 days remained on the study and were evaluated at 1 to 2 months intervals.

Tumor responses were 2 complete remissions, 4 partial remissions, 18 stable diseases, and 10 progressive diseases.

The median survival of all dogs was 181 days (range, 28 to 720+ days), with 2 dogs still alive.

Piroxicam toxicity consisted of gastrointestinal irritation in 6 dogs and renal papillary necrosis (detected at necropsy) in 2 dogs.

Monocyte production of PGE2 appeared to decrease with therapy in dogs whose tumors were decreasing in size, and increased in dogs with tumor progression.

A consistent pattern in natural killer cell activity was not observed. In vitro cytotoxicity assays against 4 canine tumor cell lines revealed no direct antitumor effects of piroxicam.

In summary, antitumor activity, which was not likely the result of a direct cytotoxic effect, was observed in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with piroxicam.

Source: Knapp DW, et al (1995): Piroxicam therapy in 34 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. In: J Vet Intern Med. 1995 Mar-Apr;9(2):113-4.




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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