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Effects of acepromazine on pulmonary gas exchange in horses
Acepromazine is commonly used in various species, including horses. But less is known about its effects on pulmonary gas exchange in sedated horses. This brandnew study from Sweden gives new insights, for example of the effects on arterial oxygenation.

This study was undertaken to study pulmonary gas exchange and cardiovascular responses to sedation achieved with romifidine and butorphanol (RB) alone, or combined with acepromazine, and during subsequent tiletaminezolazepam anaesthesia in horses.

Six (four males and two females) healthy Standardbred trotters aged 312 years; mass 423520 kg, were included in this randomized, cross-over, experimental study.

Horses were anaesthetized on two occasions (with a minimum interval of 1 week) with intravenous (IV) tiletaminezolazepam (Z; 1.4 mg kg1) after pre-anaesthetic medication with IV romifidine (R; 0.1 mg kg1) and butorphanol (B; 25 Āµg kg1 IV).

At the first trial, horses were randomly allocated to receive (protocol ARBZ) or not to receive (protocol RBZ) acepromazine (A; 35 Āµg kg1) intramuscularly (IM) 35 minutes before induction of anaesthesia.

Each horse was placed in left lateral recumbency and, after tracheal intubation, allowed to breathe room air spontaneously.

Respiratory and haemodynamic variables and ventilationperfusion (
; multiple inert gas elimination technique) ratios were determined in the conscious horse, after sedation and during anaesthesia. One- and two-way repeated-measures anova were used to identify within- and between-technique differences, respectively.

Results: During sedation with RB, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreased compared to baseline and increased mismatch was evident; there was no O2 diffusion limitation or increase in ntrapulmonary shunt fraction identified. With ARB, PaO2 and
remained unaffected. During anaesthesia, intrapulmonary shunt occurred to the same extent in both protocols, and mismatching increased.
This was less in the ARBZ group.

Arterial O2 tension decreased in both protocols, but was lower at 25 and 35 minutes of anaesthesia in RBZ than in ARBZ.

During sedation, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (t) were lower while arterial-mixed venous oxygen content differences and haemoglobin concentrations were higher in RBZ compared with ARBZ. Total systemic vascular resistance, mean systemic, and mean pulmonary arterial pressures were higher during anaesthesia with RBZ compared to ARBZ.

Acepromazine added to RB generally improved haemodynamic variables and arterial oxygenation during sedation and anaesthesia. Arterial oxygenation was impaired as a result of increased shunt and mismatch during anaesthesia, although acepromazine treatment reduced disturbances and falls in PaO2 to some extent.

Haemodynamic variables were closer to baseline during sedation and anaesthesia when horses received acepromazine.

Acepromazine may confer advantages in healthy normovolaemic horses.


Source: Marntell, Stina, Nyman, Gƶrel, Funkquist, Pia & Hedenstierna, Gƶran (2005): Effects of acepromazine on pulmonary gas exchange and circulation during sedation and dissociative anaesthesia in horses. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32 (2), 83-93.




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EQUINE

The farrier role in supporting horse owners to prevent laminitismembers
Emerging research highlights how, due to demographic changes in horse owner populations in Western societies, complex ownerā€“horse relationships are leading to inappropriate horse care, including overnutrition, which in turn can lead to laminitis. Farriers, due to their regular visits, may be in a position to support owners in dealing with this problem. This study explored whether UK farriers have a role in working with horse owners to support horse welfare and prevent laminitis.

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