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Nitric oxide concentration in cats with cardiac diseases
Arterial thromboembolism (ATE) and hypertrophic or intermediate cardiomyopathy are commonly seen in cats. In this study on 81 cats, the association between nitric oxide concentration and the presence of ATE, congestive heart failure (CHF), and echocardiographic measurements was determined and compared with healthy controls.


All cats underwent 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. Nitric oxide was assessed indirectly by measuring the concentration of plasma nitrite+nitrate (NN), end products of nitric oxide metabolism. Plasma arginine concentration and dietary arginine content were also assessed since arginine is a precursor for nitric oxide production.

Twenty-six cats with cardiomyopathy, 26 cats with cardiomyopathy and ATE, and 29 nor-mal cats were enrolled. Compared with healthy controls, median NN concentration was significantly higher in cats with cardiomyopathy and cats with both cardiomyopathy and ATE. There was no difference between cats with cardiomyopathy alone and cats with cardiomyopathy and ATE. Nitrate+ nitrite concen-tration in cats with cardiac disease was unrelated to the presence of CHF, plasma arginine concentration, or dietary arginine content. In cats with cardiac disease, the left atrial diameter, left ven-tricular diameter in diastole, and age were negatively correlated with NN concentrations.

Nitric oxide concentration is elevated in cats with cardiac disease, but the elevation appears to be independent of ATE and CHF.

Source: Freeman, L.M., McMichael, M.A., de Laforcade, A.M., Rozanski, E.A., Brown, D.J., Rush, J.E. (2003): Indirect determination of nitric oxide in cats with cardiomyopathy and arterial thromboembolism.
In: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 13 (2), pp. 71-76.

www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi: 10.1046/
j.1435-6935.2003.00085.x



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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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