|Hepatobiliary neuroendocrine carcinoma was diagnosed in 17 cats in a period of 10 years.
Seven tumors were of intrahepatic origin, one of which was a composite containing components of epithelial and neuroendocrine carcinoma. Nine tumors were of extrahepatic origin, and one tumor was located in the gall-bladder.
The cats were adult and geriatric, and the male : female ratio varied according to tumor group.
Hepatomegaly, anorexia, weight loss, and vomiting were the most common clinical signs observed in the cats with hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. The cats with extrahepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma showed these signs plus icterus (5/9) and high concentrations of hepatic enzymes.
Histologically, the hepatic neuroendocrine carcinomas had two patterns, one with acinar structures separated by vascular stroma lined by cuboidal or columnar cells and the other solid with groups of anaplastic cells separated by vascular stroma.
The composite tumor consisted of both bile duct carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma.
The extrahepatic neuroendocrine carcinomas and the gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma were characterized by solid sheets or groups of round to oval cells with vascular or fibrovascular stroma.
Immunohistochemical examination of 10 of the neuroendocrine carcinomas revealed that all 10 stained with neuron-specific enolase; one bile duct carcinoma and the gallbladder carcinoma stained with chromogranin; four of five bile duct carcinomas and the gall bladder carcinoma stained with synaptophysin; and one bile duct carcinoma stained with gastrin.
One cat with hepatic carcinoma had duodenal ulcer; in this cat, ultrastructural studies showed neurosecretory granules leading to the diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
In four cats in which necropsy was permitted, carcinomatosis (4/4), lymph nodes (4/4), lungs (2/4), and intestines (1/4) were the metastatic sites.
Fourteen of the 17 cats were euthanatized during or immediately after surgery.
Source: A. K. Patnaik, P. H. Lieberman, R. A. Erlandson and C. Antonescu (2005): Hepatobiliary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma in Cats: A Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Study of 17 Cases. In: Vet Pathol 42:331-337 (2005)
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