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Pharmacokinetics of acyclovir in adult healthy horses
Acyclovir is an antiviral drug which is commonly used in human medicine, especially in treating herpes labialis infections. Sometimes it is also used in horses but less is known about its pharmakokinetics. An interesting study - who knew that the substance does not reach therapeutical levels after oral adminisration?

Acyclovir was administered IV (10 mg/kg in 1 L isotonic crystalloid solution over 60 minutes) and orally (20 mg/kg) to healthy adult horses.

Plasma samples were obtained and acyclovir concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

Peak concentration (mean±SD) for IV acyclovir was 13.74±5.88 g/mL at the completion of the 1-hour infusion.

The half-life of the distribution phase () was 0.16 hours while the half-life of the elimination phase () was 9.6 hours.
The steady-state volume of distribution was 3.93±1.21 L/kg.

We were unable to measure pharmacokinetics after PO acyclovir as plasma concentrations were below the lower limits of detection in all 6 horses.

Conclusions: IV administration of acyclovir to healthy adult horses achieves concentrations within the sensitivity range described for equine herpes virus-type 1.

The oral bioavailability of acyclovir in horses is low and additional studies are required.



Source: Wilkins, Pamela A., Papich, Mark & Sweeney, Raymond W. (2005): Pharmacokinetics of acyclovir in adult horses. In: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 15 (3), 174-178.





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EQUINE

Septic keratitis - associated bacteria and antibiotic susceptibilitymembers
Septic keratitis is occasionally seen in various species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the most common bacterial pathogens associated with septic keratitis in veterinary patients from Switzerland. The second objective was to analyze antibiotic susceptibility test results of the identified bacterial pathogens. The third objective was to evaluate potential breed predispositions to septic keratitis. A very interesting study with results not only important for Switzerland!

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  • Head computed tomography in equine practicemembers
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  • Actinobacillus capsulatus peritonitis and chyloabdomen in a horsemembers
  • Adverse effect of an intrapleural tissue plasminogen activatormembers
  • Avulsion of the proximal digital annular ligament in five horsesmembers
  • Penile and preputial squamous cell carcinoma in the horse members
  • CT diagnosis of fatigue fracture of Mt 3 in young adult horsesmembers
  • Two regimens of lidocaine infusion in horses undergoing laparotomy for colicmembers
  • Biofilms of Candida spp. from the ocular conjunctiva of horses members
  • PARR clonality testing in a horse with a solitary retropharyngeal lymphomamembers
  • New sensor design for buccal pulse oximetry in horsesmembers


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