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Comparison of different bile acid tests with other routine screenig tests in dogs with hepatopathies
Three different methods for measuring urine bile acids (UBA) are compared serum bile acids (SBA) test and other routine screening tests in dogs with hepatic disorders. 15 healthy dogs, 102 dogs with hepatic disorders, and 9 dogs with clinical signs of hepatic disorders that were found to have nonhepatic disorders were included in this prospective study.

Blood and urine samples were collected from sick dogs and healthy dogs for serum biochemical analyses, and determination of concentrations of SBA and UBA.
Urine samples were obtained from 15 healthy dogs to establish an upper cutoff value for UBA concentrations. The UBA were measured by use of a quantitative-linked enzymatic colorimetric method. Three analytical modifications were evaluated; 1 quantified only urine sulfated bile acids (USBA), 1 only urine nonsulfated bile acids (UNSBA), and 1 quantified both (USBA plus UNSBA). The UBA values were standardized with the urine creatinine concentration.
The UNSBA-to-creatinine ratio and USBA plus UNSBA-to-creatinine ratio tests had the best diagnostic performance of the UBA tests; each had a substantially higher specificity, slightly higher positive predictive value, slightly lower negative predictive value, and lower sensitivity than the SBA test. These UBA-to-creatinine values were positively correlated with SBA values. The USBA-to-creatinine ratio had poor sensitivity, indicating a low rate of bile acid sulfation in dogs.
Conclusions: The UBA can be measured in dogs with sufficient repeatability and accuracy for clinical application. The UNSBA-to-creatinine ratio and USBA plus UNSBA-to-creatinine ratio identified dogs with hepatic disorders nearly as well as the SBA test.

Source: C E. Balkman,S A. Center,J F. Randolph, D Trainor,K L. Warner; M A. Crawford, K Adachi; H N. Erb (2003): Evaluation of urine sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids as a diagnostic test for liver disease in dogs. In: J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1368–1375



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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Computed tomographic findings in dogs infected with Crenosoma vulpis
Crenosoma vulpis is a nematode lungworm found in wild and domestic canids in some parts of North America and Europe. Reported radiographic findings are nonspecific and consist of a combination of bronchial and interstitial changes of variable severity. This retrospective, case series study aimed to describe thoracic computed tomographic (CT) findings for a group of dogs with confirmed crenosomosis. Selection criteria were presentation with a chronic cough during the period of January 2016 to February 2017, evaluation by thoracic CT, and final diagnosis of C. vulpis infection based on bronchoscopic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

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