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Immunotoxic activity of the fungal immunosuppressans ochratoxin A
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is an immunosuppressant fungal compound, produced by toxigenic species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi in a wide variety of climates and geographical regions. The contamination of food by this mycotoxin takes place primarily during preharvest periods. Which immunosuppressant activity does OTA exactly have?

Almost all types of food can be contaminated. In addition, its chemical stability against heat and during industrial food processing makes OTA one of the most abundant food contaminating mycotoxins.

Due in part to its long serum half-life in man, almost 100% of all human blood samples from some geographic regions may be positive for OTA.

The immunosuppressant activity of OTA is characterized by size reduction of vital immune organs, such as thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, depression of antibody responses, alterations in the number and functions of immune cells, and modulation of cytokine production.

The immunotoxic activity of OTA probably results from degenerative changes and cell death following necrosis and apoptosis, in combination with slow replacement of affected immune cells, due to inhibition of protein synthesis.



Source: AL-ANATI, L. & PETZINGER, E. (2006): Immunotoxic activity of ochratoxin A. In: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 29 (2), 79-90.




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BOVINE

Neuromuscular block monitoring after cis-atracurium in the anaesthetized pigmembers
Neuromuscular blocking agents should be included as part of a balanced anaesthetic protocol to improve anaesthetic management, although doses are not always established for each species. Cis‐atracurium is a benzylisoquinolinium neuromuscular blocking agent with an intermediate duration of action devoid of significant adverse effects previously used in pigs with a wide dosage range. Cis‐atracurium was administered at 1 mg/kg bolus to sixteen pigs to establish its time profile and effects. Can it be recommended?

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