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Immunotoxic activity of the fungal immunosuppressans ochratoxin A
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is an immunosuppressant fungal compound, produced by toxigenic species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi in a wide variety of climates and geographical regions. The contamination of food by this mycotoxin takes place primarily during preharvest periods. Which immunosuppressant activity does OTA exactly have?

Almost all types of food can be contaminated. In addition, its chemical stability against heat and during industrial food processing makes OTA one of the most abundant food contaminating mycotoxins.

Due in part to its long serum half-life in man, almost 100% of all human blood samples from some geographic regions may be positive for OTA.

The immunosuppressant activity of OTA is characterized by size reduction of vital immune organs, such as thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, depression of antibody responses, alterations in the number and functions of immune cells, and modulation of cytokine production.

The immunotoxic activity of OTA probably results from degenerative changes and cell death following necrosis and apoptosis, in combination with slow replacement of affected immune cells, due to inhibition of protein synthesis.



Source: AL-ANATI, L. & PETZINGER, E. (2006): Immunotoxic activity of ochratoxin A. In: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 29 (2), 79-90.




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BOVINE

Role of melatonin and its receptors in animal reproductionmembers
Melatonin and its receptors play a crucial role in the regulation of the animal reproductive process, primarily in follicular development. However, the role that melatonin performs in regulating hormones related with reproduction remains unclear. This review article presents a current contemporary research conducted by numerous researchers from the entire world on the role of melatonin and its receptors in animal reproduction, from the year 1985 to the year 2017.

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