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Persistent urinary tract infections and reinfections in dogs
Persistent or recurrent urinary infections are a common problem in dogs. Many presdisposing diseases, e.g. prostatitis, hyperadrenocorticism, are described. This wonderful study analyses the data of 100 dogs with persistent urinary tract infections or reinfections and gives very interesting results!

A retrospective study was performed of 100 dogs with persistent urinary tract infections (UTIs) or reinfections presenting to the North Carolina State University (Raleigh, NC) Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 1989 and 1999.

Criteria for selection included > or = 2 positive urine cultures within a 6-month period. Signalment, presence of predisposing disorders, urinalysis and urine culture results, and treatment strategies were extracted from the medical records.

Dogs were a median age of 7 years when the UTI was 1st diagnosed.

Dogs younger than 3 and older than 10 years were at increased and decreased risks, respectively, for reinfections or persistent UTIs.

Spayed females were more common in the UTI population.

More than half of the dogs were asymptomatic for a UTI at 1st presentation.

Urine sediment examinations identified hematuria, pyuria, and bacteriuria in 47, 72, and 85% of the samples, respectively.

The most commonly isolated organisms were Escherichia coli and Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp.; multiple isolates also were common.

Of the isolates, 29.5% were resistant to achievable serum concentrations of all antibiotics commonly prescribed for PO administration.

Dogs with abnormal micturition were more likely to have infections by organisms resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

Potentially predisposing disorders were identified in 71 dogs. A correction of these disorders was accomplished in 35% of these 71 dogs.

Dogs given standard antibiotic therapy without addressing predisposing disorders experienced poor control of their UTIs; 74.5% of these dogs had an apparent disease-free interval (ADFI) of < 8 weeks.

By comparison, dogs in which predisposing disorders were corrected or those that were treated with low-dose, long-term antibiotic regimens subjectively had better control.



Source: Seguin MA, Vaden SL, Altier C, Stone E, Levine JF. (2003): Persistent urinary tract infections and reinfections in 100 dogs (1989-1999). In: J Vet Intern Med. 2003 Sep-Oct;17(5):622-31.




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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