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Use of bovine LH-R to reach reversible infertility in bitches
Reversible infertility is commonly wanted by dog owners who are not willing to have their dogs castrated. Routinely, this effect is reached by the use of gestagens, but their side effects can be serious. Scientists investigated if bovine LH-R injections could be used for the same purpose.

Adult female dogs were immunized with 0.5 mg bovine luteinizing hormone receptor (LH-R) encapsulated in a silastic subdermal implant and subsequently with four intramuscular booster injections of 0.1 mg LH-R each. Circulating LH-R antibody was detected in the sera 3 weeks post-implant.

The appearance of LH-R antibody was associated with a decline in the serum progesterone concentrations to a range of 0-0.5 ng/ml until day 365 in the immunized dogs in comparison with a range of 5-10 ng in the control animals, suggesting a lack of ovulation and corpus luteum function in immunized dogs. The immunized dogs did not show signs of `standing heat` and failed to ovulate when induced by LH-RH challenge. Serum oestradiol levels, however, remained in the range of 30-40 pg/ml in both the immunized and the control dogs.
With the decline in the antibody titres, the hormonal profile and vaginal cytology returned to a fertile state and the dogs exhibited signs of `standing heat`, as well as vaginal bleeding. Dogs immunized with LH-R did not show any serious metabolic, local or systemic adverse effects. The hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis remained intact as indicated by little difference in pituitary LH levels between control and immunized animals, and by the release of LH by LH-RH challenge.

These studies demonstrate that active immunization of female dogs with LH-R could immunomodulate ovarian function to cause a reversible state of infertility. It may be postulated that, due to extensive interspecies homology, a recombinant LH receptor-based immunocontraceptive vaccine may also be effective in other vertebrates.

Source: BB Saxena, A Clavio, M Singh, P Rathnam, Y Bukharovich, T Reimers Jr, A Saxena,S Perkins (2002): Modulation of Ovarian Function in Female Dogs Immunized with Bovine Luteinizing Hormone Receptor. In: Reproduction in Domestic Animals Volume 37 Issue 1 Page 9 - February 2002




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BOVINE

Subclinical ketosis in dairy cows: prevalence and risk factorsmembers
Subclinical ketosis is commonly seen especially in dairy cows and grazing systems aand can become a serious and sometimes life threatening metabolic problem. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Subclinical ketosis (SCK) between 4 and 19 days in milk (DIM) in a grazing production system and investigate the importance of potential risk factors for SCK.

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