|Cats were included only if they had been treated for hypertension using a beta-adrenergic antagonist, a calcium channel blocker or hemodialysis.
The medical records were reviewed from Data regarding signalment, preoperative management, surgical technique, type and doses of anesthetics administered, perioperative hemodynamics and intra- and postoperative complications, postoperative analgesia, morbidity and early mortality were recorded. Data were expressed as mean Â± SD.
Preanesthetic medication included a combination of an anticholinergic and an opioid (oxymorphone). Anesthesia induction was performed mostly with isoflurane and oxygen delivered by mask. Anesthesia maintenance was primarily achieved with isoflurane in 100% oxygen. Nitrous oxide was often used as part of the anesthetic technique. The mean duration of anesthesia was 4.6 hours Â± 27 minutes. The mean renal allograft ischemic time was 60 minutes. During the anesthetic period, the majority of the recipient cats received either fresh whole blood (FWB) (N = 25, 83%), cross-matched packed red blood cells (PRBC) (N = 3, 10%) or fresh frozen plasma (FFP) (N = 2, 7%) combined with a balanced electrolyte solution. Blood products administered averaged 63 Â± 34 mL and crystalloid 94 Â± 62 mL. The most common treated intraoperative complications were hypotension (N = 14, 47%), hypothermia (N = 13, 43%), metabolic acidosis (N = 11, 37%), hypocalcemia (N = 5, 17%), hypoglycemia (N = 4, 13%), hypertension (N = 2, 7%), bradycardia (N = 1, 3%), and ventricular premature contractions (N = 1, 3%). All cats received opioid analgesics postoperatively. Complications observed in the first 24 hours postoperatively were hypertension (N = 20, 67%), hematuria (N = 14, 47%), electrolyte disturbances (N = 9, 30%), temperature imbalances (N = 5, 17%), decreased PCV requiring blood transfusion (N = 5, 17%), decreased perfusion of a foot associated with external iliac anastomosis technique (N = 5, 17%), seizures associated with hypertension (N = 3, 10%), uroabdomen (N = 2, 7%), acute graft rejection (N = 1, 3%) and, corneal ulceration (N = 1, 3%). Survival rates in the perioperative period were 100, 96.7, and 93.4% intraoperatively, at 24 hours, and 7 days following surgery.
Successful anesthesia can be performed in critically ill renal transplant recipients. However, for optimal graft function and patient survival, normothermia, normovolemia, normotension, and normal acid-base and electrolyte balance should be carefully maintained. Successful anesthetic management requires understanding of the pathophysiology of end-stage renal disease and the maintenance of homeostasis during the different stages of the perioperative period.
Source: Valverde, Celia R, Gregory, Clare R & Ilkiw, Janet E (2002): Anesthetic management in feline renal transplantation. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 29 (3), 117-125.
Tell a friend
Send this article