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Cardiomyopathy, arterial thrombembolism and hypercoagulability in cats
Arterial thromboembolism (ATE) is a common complication of feline cardiomyopathy; however, the pathogenesis of ATE is unknown. Is there perhaps a systemic activation of the coagulation cascade (hypercoagulability) in affected cats, and endothelial injury promotes ATE? An interesting hypothesis...


Healthy cats (n = 30) and 3 groups of cardiomyopathic cats: Group (1) left atrial enlargement only (LAE [n = 11]), ie, left atrial to aortic ratio >1.4; Group (2) LAE with spontaneous echocardiographic contrast, atrial thrombi or both (SEC-T [n = 16]); and Group (3) acute ATE with LAE (n = 16).

Methods: Hypercoagulability was defined by 2 or more laboratory abnormalities reflecting coagulation factor excess (high fibrinogen concentration or Factor VIII coagulant activity), inhibitor deficiency (low antithrombin activity), or thrombin generation (high thrombin-antithrombin complex [TAT] and d-dimer concentrations).

High von Willebrand factor antigen concentration (vWF : Ag) was considered a marker of endothelial injury. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics.

Results: The 3 groups of cats with cardiac disease had higher median fibrinogen concentrations than did the healthy cats.

Criteria of hypercoagulability were found exclusively in cats with SEC-T (50%) and ATE (56%).

Hypercoagulability was not associated with left atrial size or congestive heart failure (CHF). ATE cats had significantly higher median vWF : Ag concentration than did the other groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Systemic hypercoagulability is evident in many cardiomyopathic cats, often without concurrent CHF or overt ATE.

Hypercoagulabilty may represent a risk factor for ATE.

High vWF : Ag in ATE cats was attributed to downstream endothelial injury from the occlusive thrombus.


Source: T. Stokol, et al (2008): Hypercoagulability in Cats with Cardiomyopathy. In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 22 Issue 3, Pages 546 - 552




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Diagnostic Markers in Dogs With Hemangiosarcoma Related Hemoabdomen
Hemoabdomen as a consequence of a ruptured hemangiosarcoma especially in splen or liver is a common emergency in small animal practice. Not in all cases sonography is available to diagnose this causative neoplasia. This recently published new study investigates: 1) acanthocytosis and presence of acanthocytes in peritoneal fluid as a diagnostic marker for hemangiosarcoma (HSA) in dogs with non-traumatic hemoabdomen; and 2) the association between other erythrocyte, biochemical, and hematologic abnormalities as a mean of differentiating HSA from other disease.
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