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Pulse pressure and systolic pressure variation in horses under general anesthesia
Changes in arterial pressure due to respiratory phases have been used to predict fluid responsiveness in a number of species and pulse pressure variation (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) are commonly used. The relationship between PPV and SPV has not been described in horses. This study describes and compares PPV and SPV values of horses under general anesthesia.


Twenty-six horses undergoing general anesthesia and receiving mechanical ventilation were enrolled in the study.

Recordings of maximal and minimal values of pulse pressure and systolic pressure were calculated every 15 minutes throughout surgery.

Results: Initial PPV was 15.6% (7.9, 33.8) and decreased over the first 30 minutes to 10.7 ± 7.2% (P = 0.03).

Initial SPV was 10.3 ± 2.6% and decreased over the first 30 minutes to 7.3 ± 3.3% (P = 0.004). PPV and SPV had a correlation coefficient of 0.52 (P < 0.0001) and a 95% limits of agreement from −7.1% to 14.4%.

Conclusion: PPV and SPV measurements in horses do not have strong agreement.


Source: Langdon Fielding, C. and Stolba, D. N. (2012), Pulse pressure variation and systolic pressure variation in horses undergoing general anesthesia. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 22: 372–375. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2012.00746.x




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An 11‐year‐old Trakehner gelding was presented for evaluation of lethargy, decreased appetite, mild icterus, and elevated hepatic enzyme activities. Physical examination, serum chemistry results, and liver biopsy histopathologic findings were supportive of Theiler`s disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing results of serum and liver tissue were positive for nonprimate (equine) hepacivirus (NPHV) and a novel equine parvovirus‐hepatitis virus (EqPV‐H). A serious and finally fatal problem, caused by contaminated vaccine.

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