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Canine meninges in substraction magnetic resonance imaging
The canine meninges are not visible as discrete structures in noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) images, and are incompletely visualized in T1-weighted, postgadolinium images, reportedly appearing as short, thin curvilinear segments with minimal enhancement. Subtraction imaging facilitates detection of enhancement of tissues, hence may increase the conspicuity of meninges.

The aim of the present study was to describe qualitatively the appearance of canine meninges in subtraction MR images obtained using a dynamic technique.

Images were reviewed of 10 consecutive dogs that had dynamic pre- and postgadolinium T1W imaging of the brain that was interpreted as normal, and had normal cerebrospinal fluid.

Image-anatomic correlation was facilitated by dissection and histologic examination of two canine cadavers.

Meningeal enhancement was relatively inconspicuous in postgadolinium T1-weighted images, but was clearly visible in subtraction images of all dogs.

Enhancement was visible as faint, small-rounded foci compatible with vessels seen end on within the sulci, a series of larger rounded foci compatible with vessels of variable caliber on the dorsal aspect of the cerebral cortex, and a continuous thin zone of moderate enhancement around the brain.

Superimposition of color-encoded subtraction images on pregadolinium T1- and T2-weighted images facilitated localization of the origin of enhancement, which appeared to be predominantly dural, with relatively few leptomeningeal structures visible.

Dynamic subtraction MR imaging should be considered for inclusion in clinical brain MR protocols because of the possibility that its use may increase sensitivity for lesions affecting the meninges.


Source: Lamb, C. R., Lam, R., Keenihan, E. K. and Frean, S. (2014), APPEARANCE OF THE CANINE MENINGES IN SUBTRACTION MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. doi: 10.1111/vru.12166


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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Reference intervals for blood parameters in Shetland Sheepdogsmembers
Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed‐specific approach is more often required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed‐specific RIs, where appropriate.

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