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Intravitreal membranes associated with intraocular hemorrhage in dogs
Intraviteal membranes are sometimes diagnosed in dogs. In this study the predisposing conditions in five globes were determined with different histological and immunohistochemical techniques. One result: Intraviteal hemorrhage was found in all cases.

The globes originated from four Labrador Retrievers or Labrador-cross dogs and a Springer Spaniel. The ages of the dogs ranged from 4 to 11 years.

Standard histology and immunohistochemical procedures for factor VIII-related antigen, smooth muscle actin (SMA), vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were performed.

Intravitreal membranes varied from loosely to highly organized. The extent of organization corresponded with increasing immunoreactivity for vimentin and GFAP, indicating their predominantly glial origin. They were never immunopositive for smooth muscle actin, nor were they vascularized. In all cases, they were associated with intravitreal hemorrhage.
Additional common findings included epiretinal membranes, retinal neovascularization, preiridal fibrovascular membranes and glaucoma.

Intravitreal membranes may be a sequelae of intravitreal hemorrhage. This in turn, may arise from new vessels associated with epiretinal or preiridial membranes, or hemorrhage associated with optic disc cupping or retinal neovascularization. All of these phenomena may accompany glaucoma.


Source: Zeiss, Caroline J. & Dubielzig, Richard R. (2004): A morphologic study of intravitreal membranes associated with intraocular hemorrhage in the dog. In: Veterinary Ophthalmology 7 (4), 239-243.




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Patient-specific facemask to facilitate brain biopsymembers
The objective of this pilot study was to describe the application and first preliminary data of a novel MRI and CT compatible patient-specific facemask for stereotactic brain biopsy of intracranial lesions in dogs. Five client-owned dogs presenting for neurological deficits consistent with forebrain disease were included in the study. All dogs had MRI findings consistent with an intracranial lesion. But biopsies in this region are not easy to obtain. Does an individual face mask help?

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