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Intravitreal membranes associated with intraocular hemorrhage in dogs
Intraviteal membranes are sometimes diagnosed in dogs. In this study the predisposing conditions in five globes were determined with different histological and immunohistochemical techniques. One result: Intraviteal hemorrhage was found in all cases.

The globes originated from four Labrador Retrievers or Labrador-cross dogs and a Springer Spaniel. The ages of the dogs ranged from 4 to 11 years.

Standard histology and immunohistochemical procedures for factor VIII-related antigen, smooth muscle actin (SMA), vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were performed.

Intravitreal membranes varied from loosely to highly organized. The extent of organization corresponded with increasing immunoreactivity for vimentin and GFAP, indicating their predominantly glial origin. They were never immunopositive for smooth muscle actin, nor were they vascularized. In all cases, they were associated with intravitreal hemorrhage.
Additional common findings included epiretinal membranes, retinal neovascularization, preiridal fibrovascular membranes and glaucoma.

Intravitreal membranes may be a sequelae of intravitreal hemorrhage. This in turn, may arise from new vessels associated with epiretinal or preiridial membranes, or hemorrhage associated with optic disc cupping or retinal neovascularization. All of these phenomena may accompany glaucoma.


Source: Zeiss, Caroline J. & Dubielzig, Richard R. (2004): A morphologic study of intravitreal membranes associated with intraocular hemorrhage in the dog. In: Veterinary Ophthalmology 7 (4), 239-243.




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Computed tomographic findings in dogs infected with Crenosoma vulpis
Crenosoma vulpis is a nematode lungworm found in wild and domestic canids in some parts of North America and Europe. Reported radiographic findings are nonspecific and consist of a combination of bronchial and interstitial changes of variable severity. This retrospective, case series study aimed to describe thoracic computed tomographic (CT) findings for a group of dogs with confirmed crenosomosis. Selection criteria were presentation with a chronic cough during the period of January 2016 to February 2017, evaluation by thoracic CT, and final diagnosis of C. vulpis infection based on bronchoscopic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

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