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Is survey radiography sufficient to localize cervical disk protrusion?
Myelography is thought to be mandatory to localize the exact site and extense of disk problems in dogs. But is it always necessary or can an experienced radiologist localize those problems only with survey radiography? This study on 64 dogs answers the question: myelography is still recommended.

Sixty-four dogs with histories and clinical signs consistent with cervical intervertebral disk disease were presented for evaluation.

Survey spinal radiographs were obtained, followed by myelography.

In 61% of the survey radiographs, evaluators identified sites of disk extrusion or protrusion based on radiographic findings. Of those radiographs where a site was identified, ability to accurately identify the correct site of disk extrusion ranged from 53% to 67%, with an average of 58%.

Therefore, the overall accuracy rate for correct identification of the site(s) of disk extrusion for all survey radiographs was 35%.

Twelve cases had more than one site of disk extrusion or protrusion evident myelographically.

In cases where multiple sites of extrusion were confirmed myelographically, the ability to localize at least one of the sites on the corresponding survey radiographs ranged from 63% to 80%, with an average of 70%.

The major site of disk extrusion or protrusion was incorrectly identified in 16% to 31% of the survey radiographs, with an average of 26%.

The use of survey radiographs alone is an inaccurate means for localization of cervical intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion.

Source: ME Somerville, SM Anderson, PJ Gill, BJ Kantrowitz, and JL Stowater (2001): Accuracy of localization of cervical intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion using survey radiography in dogs. In: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, Vol 37, Issue 6, 563-572



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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

Vocal fold granulomas in brachycephalic dogs
Vocal cord granulomas are rarely observed in brachycephalic breeds but often reported in humans as contact granulomas. Six French bulldogs were included in this retrospective descriptive study. Endoscopic laryngeal examinations were performed on all dogs under general anaesthesia. Vocal cord lesions were exclusively unilateral, exophytic, approximately 3‐mm wide ulcerated mucosal nodules, arising from the vocal cord. Maybe an underdiagnosed disease in brachycephalic breeds?

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