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Bilateral nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis in a horse
Bilateral conjunctivitis is not unusual in horses and often it is caused by allergy. But in this recently published case report, the animal suffers from a bilateral nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis. The diagnosis and therapy are very interesting!

A Russian jumper horse presented because of an ocular perilimbal conjunctival mass and, on clinical examination, two bilateral conjunctival masses were found, of different size and conformation.

Attempts at complete excision of the left eye mass and excisional biopsy of the right eye mass were performed.

The left eye mass recurred rapidly, but resolved completely after topical corticosteroid therapy.

The two lesions had similar histopathologic features, characterized by focal, chronic, primarily lymphocytic conjunctivitis with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia.

Special histopathologic staining techniques (Gomori methenamine silver and acid fast stains) and immunohistochemistry (for CD3, BLA36 and lysozyme) failed to reveal any etiologic agents and indicated an inflammatory lesion composed of a heterogeneous population of lymphocytes and macrophages (nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis).

The lesions were indistinguishable, clinically and behaviorally, from what has been reported as `conjunctival pseudotumor` in the horse.

Equine conjunctival pseudotumor/nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis has been reported to be unilateral and have a good prognosis after partial or complete surgical excision.

This is the first reported case of bilateral nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis in a horse and for which surgical excision alone was not curative.


Source: Stoppini, Riccardo, Gilger, Brian C., Malarkey, David E., Ratto, Alessandra & Brigati, Giampiero (2005): Bilateral nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis in a horse. In: Veterinary Ophthalmology 8 (2), 129-134.



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EQUINE

Trema micrantha-associated neurotoxicosis
Trema micrantha is a tree widely distributed throughout the Americas. The tree produces highly palatable leaves that have been associated with natural poisoning in goats, sheep and horses, in which hepatic necrosis and hepatic encephalopathy have been observed.This retrospective case series describes malacia and haemorrhage in the central nervous system (CNS) due to T. micrantha consumption, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions.

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