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Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography in dogs - possible or not?
Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography is a diagnostic method which is used in human medicine. Is it also possible to assess the common bile duct and the accessory pancreatic duct after retrograde filling with an iodine contrast medium in dogs? This question was investigated at the University of Helsinki. And, yes, it works - at least in healthy beagles.

Seven healthy Beagles were included in this study. All dogs had a major and a minor duodenal papilla. One Beagle had additionally an accessory papilla.

The diameter of the contrast filled ducts was measured at three defined measure points (MP13) in ventrodorsal radiographs and left lateral radiographs.

In ventrodorsal radiographs of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography the common bile duct had a straight craniomedial course.

The mean duct diameter was from proximal to distal 3.04±1.89 mm at MP1, 2.38±1.23 mm at MP2, and 2.11±0.84 mm at MP3.
In ventrodorsal radiographs of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, the left and right branch of the accessory pancreatic duct united in the pancreatic body.

The mean diameter of the right branch was 0.88±0.14 mm at MP1, 0.72±0.2 mm at MP2 and 0.61±0.11 mm at MP3. The left branch had a diameter of 0.93±0.28 mm at MP1, 0.86±0.21 at MP2, and 0.6±0.07 mm at MP3.
The mean length was 81.6±14.3 mm for the right and 107.0±24.9 mm for the left branch.

In left lateral radiographs of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, it was not possible to differentiate the left from the right branch.

Both branches ran nearly parallel and showed similar diameters but slight differences in length.

The study proves that endosopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography is possible in dogs.

Radiographs taken from dogs in dorsal recumbency allow an objective assessment of the common bile duct and the accessory pancreatic duct.



Source: Spillmann, Thomas, Happonen, Irmeli, Kähkönen, Tuomo, Fyhr, Thomas & Westermarck, Elias (2005): ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE CHOLANGIO-PANCREATOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY BEAGLES. In: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 46 (2), 97-104.




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SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

The expression of Vitamin D receptors in dogs
There is growing evidence linking low blood vitamin D concentration to numerous diseases in people and in dogs. Vitamin D influences cellular function by signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Little is known about which non-skeletal tissues express the VDR or how inflammation influences its expression in the dog.
The objectives of this recently online published study were to define which non-skeletal canine tissues express the VDR and to investigate expression in inflamed small intestine.

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