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Propofol, thiopental or ketamine as induction agents in goats?
Propofol, thiopental or ketamine as induction agents in goats - which is the best choice before halothane anesthesia is used for maintenance? A very important question for every large animal practitioner. This prospective, randomized cross-over study helps making a decision amongst these three popular induction agents.

This study was performed to compare propofol, thiopental and ketamine as induction agents before halothane anaesthesia in goats.

Animals Seven healthy adult female goats with mean (±SD; range) body mass of 38.9 ± 3.29 kg; 3545 kg were included.

The seven animals were used on 21 occasions. Each received all three anaesthetics in a randomized cross-over design, with an interval of at least 2 weeks before re-use. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous (IV) propofol (3 mg kg1), thiopental (8 mg kg1, IV) or ketamine (10 mg kg1, IV). Following tracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained with halothane for 30 minutes. Indirect blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood gases were monitored. The quality of induction and recovery, recovery times and incidence of side-effects were recorded.

Results: Induction of anaesthesia was smooth and uneventful, and tracheal intubation was easily performed in all but two goats receiving ketamine.
Changes in cardiopulmonary variables and acidbase status were similar with all three induction agents and were within clinically acceptable limits.
Mean recovery times (time to recovery of swallowing reflex and to standing) were significantly shorter, and side-effects, e.g. apnoea, regurgitation, hypersalivation and tympany, were less common in goats receiving propofol, compared with the other treatments.

Conclusions: Propofol 3 mg kg1 IV is superior to thiopental and ketamine as an induction agent before halothane anaesthesia in goats. It provides uneventful recovery which is more rapid than thiopental or ketamine, so reduces anaesthetic risk.



Source: Prassinos, Nikitas N, Galatos, Apostolos D & Raptopoulos, Dimitris (2005): A comparison of propofol, thiopental or ketamine as induction agents in goats. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32 (5), 289-296.





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BOVINE

Growth factor expression in cows with cystic ovarian diseasemembers
The objective of the present study was to examine the expression of transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFBR)1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3, Activin Receptor (ACVR)1B and ACVR2B in ovaries of cows with Cystic Ovarian Disease (COD). The expression of the selected receptors was determined by immunohistochemistry in sections of ovaries from cows with ACTH‐induced and spontaneous COD. A very interesting study which maybe offers new therapeutic options in future.

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