|Thirty-two cases of canine cutaneous histiocytosis were retrospectively evaluated. Median age at onset was 4 years.
Lesions included nodules and plaques affecting the head/face, trunk and limbs, and erythema, swelling and depigmentation of the nasal planum/nares.
Systemic involvement was not ruled out in all cases.
All dogs had complete resolution of dermatological lesions after initial treatment (median 45 days).
Initial treatment included prednisone +/Â– antibiotics (12 of 32 dogs), prednisone and tetracycline/niacinamide (four of 32), prednisone and azathioprine (three of 32), tetracycline/niacinamide +/Â– vitamin E/essential fatty acids (six of 32), antibiotics +/Â– antihistamines (three of 32), cyclosporine and ketoconazole (one of 32), topical therapy (two of 32), and no treatment (one of 32).
Seventeen dogs received maintenance therapy which consisted of tetracycline/niacinamide +/Â– vitamin E/essential fatty acids (12 of 17), cyclosporine/ketoconazole (two to three times a week) (two of 17), azathioprine daily (one of 17), prednisone/azathioprine (two times a week) (one of 17), and prednisone daily (one of 17).
Median follow up was 25 months.
Nine dogs had a recurrence of cutaneous histiocytosis (median days to recurrence 130 days), with seven of nine having more than one recurrence. At study completion, six dogs were deceased (no lesions at the time of death) and 26 of 32 were alive with no lesions.
Ten of 26 dogs were on maintenance treatment (eight tetracycline/niacinamide, one azathioprine, one vitamin E). Previous dermatological disease and season had no detectable influence on recurrence.
Recurrence was significantly more likely in dogs with nasal planum/nares lesions than dogs without these lesions. Tetracycline/niacinamide was an effective treatment option for dogs in this study population.
Source: Brian S. Palmeiro, Daniel O. Morris, Michael H. Goldschmidt, Elizabeth A. Mauldin (2007): Cutaneous reactive histiocytosis in dogs: a retrospective evaluation of 32 cases. In: Veterinary Dermatology 18 (5), 332Â–340.